Emergency lighting– this is the part of lighting, which continues to operate if the power supply of the main (working) lighting is breaks and connects to the alternative power supply. Emergency lighting is powered by backup power supply network or from an independent power source. Emergency lighting is the important part of the safety system, providing of the evacuation of people in case of fire, crash, in the case of working lights off. Emergency lighting is important in most public and industrial buildings. The lamps of emergency lighting must be economicalto provide the long period of electric power supplying from alternative power sources, must be resistant to aggressive external influences and ensures the high-quality luminous flux.
Escape emergency lighting:
· Next to each door, designed to escape in case of an emergency;
· Directly on the stairs, to provide lighting for each stair climb;
· Next to emergency exits and safety signs;
· With each change of direction;
· At each crossing of the corridors. Outside and next to each final exit from the building;
· Directly next to each fire protection equipment and fire alarm system power button;
· In cases when the illumination of escape routes is required (tunnels, corridors, etc.)
Reserve emergency lighting:
· It is necessary where the stopsof technology process or otherprocess isimpossible orhighly undesirable;
· During complex surgery;
· In the central dispatch and control consoles of energy systems, transport, rescue services etc.
Lighting of industrial and public dangerous zones:
· It is necessary where there is a risk of death or injury to a person, as a consequence of working lighting off, and crowded places: shopping centres, industrial enterprises, supermarkets, office and administrative buildings, hospitals, schools, underground facilities, sports and exhibition centres, railway stations, airports and so on.
· In a large warehouses where the people work and loaders are used.
The advantages of LED emergency lighting:
· The brightness of LED emergency lighting. Lamps with LEDs will be visible even with the serious indoor smoke;
· Ability to work from independent power supply. As a result of fire or earthquake the communications channels in the walls of buildings may be damaged, which leads to damage of the power supply and lighting OFF. In such cases the emergency lighting should work and act at a long time, thus pointing the way to save lives. LEDs energy consumption is 8-10 times less than incandescent bulbs, so they require the less battery capacity. LEDs service life is more than 50 000 hours;
· Unlike mercury energy saving LED lamps do not contain the hazardous substance, which can treat the human health if the emergency lamp will be damaged;
· LED lampshave agreater marginof safetyand protection from external influences, due tosimplicity ofconstruction ofLEDs andthe smallsize ofthe lighting body. It is possible to make the body of emergency lamp with protection against fire and explosion.
Types of emergency lamps:
· Autonomous emergency lamp – this is the device of permanent or non-permanent action, all elements of which, such as battery, lamps (including lamps of emergency lighting), control block and so on are placed inside the lamp or next to it (within 1 m of cable length);
· Emergency lighting of centralized powersupply – thisis thesource oflight ofpermanent ornon-permanent actions, powered bya centralized alarm system.